...May it serve as a constant reminder of our past so that Americans in the future will never again be denied their constitutional rights and may the remembrance of that experience serve to advance the evolution of the human spirit...
- Plaque at the Poston Relocation Center1

How could such a tragedy have occurred in a democratic society that prides itself on individual rights and freedoms?... I have brooded about this whole episode on and off for the past three decades...
- Milton S. Eisenhower, in The President Is Calling3

In the entire course of the war, 10 people were convicted of spying for Japan, all of whom were Caucasian.2

|SFEx Headlines||I AM AN AMERICAN|


Pre-War Intelligence Updated: 4/15/96
The Politics Updated: 2/3/97
An Exclusion Poster Updated: 4/22/96
The Camps Updated: 10/6/97
Memories Updated: 1/13/97
Shootings Updated: 3/17/01
Disillusionment Updated: 2/2/97

Timeline Updated: 7/10/00
Glossary Updated: 11/23/96
Gallery Updated: 6/3/96

Contributions & Requests Updated: 2/26/03
Terry Janzen Updated: 4/2/03

|Plywood Palace|

Web Sites

Many Mountains by Brian Minami
The Japanese American Legacy Project from Densho
Heart Mountain Relocation Camp from the Heart Mountain Wyoming Foundation
A Japanese American Memorial for All from Japanese American Voice
The Nikkei Page by Russ Nakatsu
Heart Mountain Digital Preservation Project from HMDPP
Japanese American Exhibit and Access Project by Theresa Mudrock
Internment Experience, an On-Line Exhibit by Erin Kimura
The Museum of the City of San Francisco by Gladys Hansen
WRA Camps in Arizona, 1942-1946 from the University of Arizona Library
Nikkei Heritage Online from the National Japanese American Historical Society
Conscience and the Constitution from Frank Abe
Children of the Camps by Kim Ina
Rabbit in the Moon from Emiko and Chizu Omori
Japanese American Internment Experience by Miki Fujuwara
Internment of Japanese Americans by Vernellia Randall
Manzanar Ringo-en by Ray DeLea
Go For Broke National Education Center by Ryan Yokota
The 442nd Go for Broke by Michael Furukawa
European American Internment by A. D. Jacobs and J. E. Fallon
Japanese-American Veterans' Association from JAVA
An Abridged History of The United States by William M. Brinton
Hirasaki National Resource Center from the Japanese American National Museum
Civil Liberties Public Education Fund from CLPEF
Japanese Relocation during World War II from the National Archives
Fort Missoula, Federal Detention Center from Target Range School
Poston Arizona Gallery by Scott Hopkins
Manzanar Relocation Camp from EarthSun
Manzanar Project by M. Leck and D. Lockett
Our World, Manzanar by Diane Yotsuya Honda
Ansel Adams: Born Free and Equal by Emily Medvec
Japanese Farmers in California by Ingolf Vogeler
Further and Further Away from The Journal of San Diego History
Japanese American History by Greg H. Leitich
Mothers Who Think: Breaking the Silence with Rahna Reiko Rizzuto
Dorothea Lange from The Library of Congress
Executive Order 9066 by Don Nakanishi
Japanese Internment 1942 - Military Justification? from Colorado Verde
Beyond Heart Mountain by Lee Ann Roripaugh
An Internment Experience from Pasco High School
Construction & Destruction by C.N. Le
The Japanese American Network at JANet@janet.org
Manzanar National Historic Site from The National Park Service

|In Memory|

Web Documents

Ex parte Mitsuye Endo, 323 U.S. 283 from J. P. Monroe
Excerpts from Personal Justice Denied from Thomas Thornhill
Questions 27 and 28 by George Takei
A Stolen Youth by Julian Guthrie
Seabrook: Long a spot for starting life over by Judy Harch
Seabrook Cultural & Education Center from Cumberland County
Ghostly Camps, Alien Nation by Lawson Fusao Inada
Military Necessity or Racial Prejudice? by Tatiana A. Klimova
The Decision to Evacuate by Stetson Conn
The Construction of Race by Will Miller
Free to Die for Their Country by Eric Muller
Snow Falling on Cedars from Random House
Protecting and Reducing Government Secrecy from the Moynihan Commission
Japanese Canadian Historical Timeline from the JCNMA
Japanese American Internment from Mindscape
Japanese-American Internment by Kyle Yamada
After 50 years, bitter memories endure by Corey Takahashi
Racism after internment by David Foster
When Americans were treated as traitors by Don Kazak
A fight for freedom by Sarah Reid
Poignant Memories by Stefanie Asin
Pawns in a Game: Latin Americans During War from Reuters News Service
The WW2 Japanese American Experience from The American War Library
Miyatake: Documenting Disgrace from Knowledge Adventure
Forum to give first-hand look into Japanese internment by Cindy Long
The Manzanar Project: Towards a Solution to Hunger by Dr. Gordon H. Sato
I Call to Remembrance edited by Susan B. Richardson

1 Frank and Joanne Iritani; Ten Visits; Asian American Curriculum Project, Inc.; San Mateo, CA; ©1995.
2 Debra LaFountaine and Pei P. Wang, Historical Background, ©1995.
3 Michi Weglyn, Years of Infamy, Morrow Quill Paperbacks, New York, ©1976, p. 299.

|HOME| CJohnYu.96@alum.mit.edu [email/index]

Disclaimer: Much of the information in these pages is used without permission -- for educational purposes only -- and may be subject to removal without notice. Copyrights are held by their respective owners.